Anglo Saxon Landscapes During the Norman Conquest

The arrival of the Normans in the later half of the eleventh century greatly altered The Anglo-Saxon ways of living. The skill of the Normans surpassed the Anglo-Saxons' in architecture and agriculture at the time of the conquest. But before focusing on home-life or having the occasion to think about domestic architecture or decoration, the Normans had to subjugate an entire society. Most often designed upon windy peaks, castles were straightforward constructs that permitted their occupants to spend time and space to offensive and defensive schemes, while monasteries were rambling stone buildings commonly placed in only the most fecund, broad valleys. Gardening, a placid occupation, was impracticable in these unproductive fortifications. The best specimen of the early Anglo-Norman style of architecture existent why not find out more presently is Berkeley Castle. The keep is said to date from William the Conqueror's time period. A significant terrace serves as a discouraging factor to intruders who would try to mine the walls of the building. On one of these parapets is a scenic bowling green covered in grass and surrounded by an aged hedge of yew that has been designed into coarse battlements.

The Vast Array of Exterior Fountains

Have you ever thought about turning your garden into a haven of tranquility? Add a feeling of tranquility to your garden with an exterior fountain and profit from all the positive benefits of a water feature.

Sending a stream of water shooting into the air, spouting fountains create a striking impression. Sizable, preexisting ponds can easily be fitted with one of these. You may have seen one of these in a recreation area or an old estate.

One of the myriad examples of an outdoor water feature is a classy wall fountain. If you are keen on include a water feature, but are doubtful because you have a small yard, do not hesitate to incorporate one of these. Wall fountains leave an understated impression, contrary to the big impact produced by spouting fountains. In this simple process. the water which is pushed out of a small opening, flows down a beautifully textured wall and is then collected at the bottom before being pushed back to the top.

Themed fountains are best when the look of your garden allows for them. Consider a classic type of statue, such as a cherub supporting a spout, for the fountain if your home or garden is rustic in style. Modern gardens, on the other hand, benefit from something more audacious. Just allow your creativity to run loose.

Water flows down several levels in a tiered fountain. Water moves down multiple tiers in a cascading fountain.

The space necessary for an outdoor fountain can be vast, therefore, a better solution is to install a wall fountain or a pondless fountain. The reservoirs required for these kinds of fountains are buried underground which helps you better use click this over here now your limited space.

If you seek a feeling of serenity and calmness, put in a Japanese fountain as these are believed to bring about such sensations. Bamboo sticks function as the piping from which water flows in these kinds of water features. A rustic bucket or shaped stone is situated at the bottom of this feature to collect the flowing water only to have the cycle repeated over and over again.

Another style of fountain is made of glass. Creating a more classical appearance are trellis-style fountains which feature shaped metalwork. Gardens with numerous sharp edges as well as contemporary forms and designs are better for these sorts of water features. The water produces a spectacular effect when it streams down the surface of the glass. Some fountains also include colored LED lights to shine onto the sheets of glass as water cascades downwards. The jagged surface of rock waterfall fountain makes for an interesting façade as the water softly flows downwards.

Bubbling rock fountains are big rocks drilled with holes which are then filled with pipes in the middle. Low pressure is used to spout out the water which then bubbles and gurgles at the top. Flowing towards the bottom of the fountain, the water comes back as a slow dribble down the sides of the rock. This is yet another solution for gardens with limited space. Water is moved at low pressure in this type of fountain, so you can be assured knowing that it will not spray all over should the wind pick up.

Powered by sunlight, solar fountains are becoming increasingly trendy. There are numerous reasons for this newly found interest such as the absence of cables, less difficulty in running them, a reduction in electricity bills, and the advantages to the environment. The numerous designs in outdoor solar-powered fountains means you will not have to compromise on style.

Cruises to the Baltic Region and Scandinavia

A cruise to Scandinavia is not complete without stops in the Baltic states too, a region with distinctive cultural traditions and lovely Old Towns that date back to the medieval traders of the Hanseatic League. The Scandinavian countries of Finland, Norway, and Sweden have busy modern cities, some of which have been voted the world’s “most livable”. Norway will appeal to both nature aficionados, with its breathtaking fjords, and history buffs, with its rich Viking history. Don’t overlook Stockholm’s “Venice of Scandinavia”, Helsinki’s collection of Art Nouveau and Neoclassical works, or Tallinn’s delicate steeples and gorgeous red rooftops. A trip through this area of the world must also involve, of course, seeing the northern lights, or aurora borealis. Based on land mass, Russia is the most massive country on earth and makes up part of both Europe and Asia. In Russia, you will want to spend some time in the lovely city of St. Petersburg and lay your eyes on the spectacular Peterhof Palace. click here adventures History enthusiasts will want to spend time in Moscow’s iconic Red Square, while foodies might opt to sample blini pancakes with Russian caviar.

Historic English Monastic Gardens

There are not lots of traces or exact records of English monastic gardens left today. A twelfth-century plan of Canterbury presents only a vague notion of the planting and structure; it demonstrates the cloisters containing a herbarium and a conduit—with the fish-pond, orchard, and vineyard outside the walls. However, even though this is an uncompleted record, it is the best we have from this earlier period. The various parts of all monasteries belonging to the same order were as invariable as circumstances permitted, leading to the conclusion that the plans and specifications of those on the mainland additionally give us an idea of the design of the English monastic gardens. An ancient monastery of St. Gall, in Switzerland left behind its design, which presents significant information into the design of the large religious compound that belonged to the Benedictines in the ninth century. The monastery was created in a valley and its cultivated grounds were http-garden-fountains broken into four areas: the cloister-garth, the physic garden, the vegetable garden, and a burial ground that was also an orchard. A savina was in the middle, providing fresh water for washing and eating.

Comprehending Victor Brake Layouts And Soundboxes

Victrolas went through a number of various brake designs and soundboxes. Within the earliest designs to the new Orthophonic Victrolas, there have been at the very least 4 iterations of brake layouts which were produced.

Meanwhile, soundboxes came in 5 a variety of iterations starting from the duration of 1906 right until 1925 when Victor produced its Electrola models. These soundboxes had been offered in either gold or nickel plate finishes. Most versions will also be interchangeable.

Brake Models

The next would be the brake styles that were deployed by Victor:

one. Bullet Brake

Found during the earliest products of Victrolas, this exterior style and design form was accustomed to cease the turntable and is said to look similar to the identical program utilized because of the exterior horn Victor machines.

two. Tab Brake

Victrolas With all the tab brake style and design had the leather-based “end” placed Within the turntable rim that makes it look invisible in the perspective in the operator.

three. Semi-Automated Brake

Released in 1913, this design and style authorized the user to preset the shutoff place manually when the report comes to an conclusion, By doing this, it enables the brake to generally be engaged with the tonearm extension rod at the conclusion of playback.

four. Completely Automated Brake

Located in The brand new Orthophonic Victrolas in 1925, the Sophisticated technique of Absolutely Automatic Brake necessary no consumer configurations because it relies exclusively about the report’s eccentric close groove to be able to cause the brake.


Most buyers would select obtaining later on Variation of soundboxes which they originally meant for use on older phonograph designs. This is because the latter styles exhibited Increased audio reproduction. Apparently, the so-named “updating” of soundboxes appeared to be encouraged by Victor sellers. Subsequently, it can be prevalent to check out an early design of Victor that comes set up by using a afterwards-classic soundbox.

The next are the various designs for your soundbox that were released:

one. Exhibition Soundbox

From 1906 up to January 1918, all Victrola designs made use of the Exhibition Soundbox style. This style will likely be identified because of the script found about the facet of the soundbox. Additionally it is scaled-down in diameter as compared with the No.two structure.

two. No. two Soundbox

The larger sized No.2 Soundbox was introduced on selected Victrola models (XIV, XVI, and XVII) within the latter Portion of 1917. This layout had a “fatter” tone arm and came in either gold or nickel plate.

three. Orthophonic Soundbox

This soundbox iteration experienced a definite overall look. It includes a thin aluminum diaphragm which replaced the sooner mica style and design. Previously versions had brass housings though afterwards versions came in pot-metallic which tends to crack with age. The accessible finishes for this style were antique brass, nickel or gold.

four. Magnetic Soundbox

Introduced in Discover More 1925 on Victor’s Electrola models, the Magnetic Soundbox made use of a coil and magnet technique in translating the file vibrations into the amplifiers’ electrical alerts.

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